The research performed allows to draw the following basic conclusions.
1. The kurgans «with moustaches» could play the role of burial kurgans, but more often they had some special independent functions. The architecture of the kurgans «with moustaches» does not have vivid material analogies in the preceding ages. Undoubtedly, it had formed in a non-material environment of myth and ritual. The attempt to reconstruct this environment using the methods of archaeoastronomy returns us to old ideas (A. Kh. Margulan and others) about the relation of the kurgans «with moustaches» with the solar cults.
2. The study of the kurgans «with moustaches» in the Trans-Urals shows that their design reflects the azimuths of main events of the yearly solar cycle. In our opinion, a typical kurgan «with moustaches» was not that much of an instrument for keeping a calendar. It rather was a ritual object related with calendar symbols. Nevertheless, the data from the kurgans «with moustaches» allows to define two different approaches of counting calendar time. In one calculation system (a group of kurgans with western-eastern orientation of the axis) the starting point was the day (days) of the equinox and the main task evidently was to fix the time intervals of certain duration, adjacent to these days. The intervals could have a significant religious and social meaning. The other calculation system (kurgans with an axis deviated to the south) is related to the calendar time counting proper; the starting points are the days of solstice; the counting could go on all the year long. We cannot exclude the possibility of these two groups of kurgans «with moustaches» being chronologically different one from another. It can also be an example of different cultural and ethnic traditions reflected in them. Along with that, the specifics of traditional perception of the category «time» and ways of its counting allows the existence of several calendar systems within one traditions.
3. The design of some of the kurgans «with moustaches» contain the azimuths of «high» and «low» moon setting and rising in utmost positions. Unlike the solar azimuths, these directions are not systematic and it is hard to draw certain conclusions.
4. The design of the kurgans «with moustaches» also contain angular values that conform with the definition of a «golden section». Sometimes such values characterize the orientation of the objects to the dominating points of the surrounding landscape. The problem of proportionality of the parts of the kurgans «with moustaches» and the standards of «beauty» put in their design require more research work.
5. The absolute dating of the kurgans «with moustaches» is a separate problem. It is also relevant for the archaeologists — the discussion about the dates is still open. The dates obtained by archaeoastronomical methods at least allow to point on the age of the creation of the kurgans — the I millennium AD. The archaeoastronomical date of the Kondurovsky kurgan «with moustaches» obtained by the lower edge of the solar disc (460 AD) looks quite trustworthy from the point of view of modem archaeology. Thus, the dates obtained allow to agree with the possibility of dating the kurgans «with moustaches» of South Trans-Urals to the V-VIII centuries AD We can assume that the tendency to date the Kazakhstan kurgans «with moustaches» to the VII-III centuries BC is connected with the existence of the component different time complexes where the early «main kurgan burial» is later supplemented with a kurgan «with moustaches»
6. Creating such component objects, the Iranian - and Turkicspeaking groups of the V-VIII centuries AD had probably wanted to demonstrate their participation in the preceding tradition. The facts of the orientation of the kurgans «with moustaches» by the
Astronomically-significant azimuths, in relation to the ruins of the fortified settlements of the Bronze Age and the dominating points of the landscape in the South Trans-Urals evidently represent the same ideological aspect.
Being the main form of cult architecture of the region for thousands of years, the kurgan sites of the South Trans-Urals are organically related with the practice and ideology of ancient astronomy. The millennial cultural tradition, including the kurgans «with moustaches», represents the succession of astronomical knowledge and reflects the stable development of the culture of astronomical observations. The origins of the ancient astronomical culture in the Urals-Kazakhstan region probably go back to the pre-kurgan age.
Курганы синташтинской культуры
Курганы алакульской культуры