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Проблемы Каменного Века - Страница 247 Первобытное общество

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Non-tooth bone fragments (#)

35

101

9

15

0

65

62

30

42

94

33

136

121

90

49

6

47

1055

178

Burned (%)

1.0

66.0

26.7

246

27,4

20.0

11.7

9 1

17,6

16.5

100

10,6

239

11.2

Brown color (%)

1.0

6.6

1.6

2.2

43.7

06

Cut marks (%)

1.5

8,1

5.1

5 8

1,1

2,1

1,8

Cone fractures (%)

4.6

8 1

11,9

6.1

5,1

3.3

2.0

2.0

4,3

1.0

Percussion marks (%)

16

3.3

2,4

08

1.1

0.6

Carnivore gnawing (%)

1,0

13.3

25

6,1

5,7

In Strata 4-9. 13-14. and 19. greater than 15% of the bone specimens are at least partially burned. Since Obi-Rakhmat is a somewhat protected cliff shelter, the bunted bone can almost certainly be associated with hominid activity. In several strata, there are bone specimens that are stained a brown color ranging from light and patchy to very' dark and complete. Some fragments have been stained only on the outer surface, while others are brown or discolored deeper into the bone itself. The incidence of this brown staining is highest in the assemblage from Stratum 19. w here there are several overlapping hearth features. The cause of the staining is not known, but it is probably an effect of close proximity to fire.

Cut marks and percussion marks, damage categories that are exclusively linked to carcass processing by hominids. are present at low frequencies. Instances of this damage are confined to Strata 7-10. 13-15. and 18-19. Cut marks mainly occur on shaft fragments and usually run perpendicular to the long axis, suggestive of carcass defleshing. However, at least one cut mark was noted on the distal end of a mountain goat first phalanx. Included within the cut marks category are a few so-called “hack marks ’, or large, deep dents that were produced by heavy cutting motion or by a hammerstone during attempts to fracture a bone. Percussion marks are abrasive and sometimes flaked surfaces that occur near the edges of a bone. They were caused by the impact of a hammerstone during the process of disarticulating and fragmenting a carcass.

 
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